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Jacob L. Moreno, M.D.


Jacob L. Moreno, MD. investigated the structure of groups and society and developed Sociometry – the scientific measurement of social relationships in groups. As in systems models, the individual is viewed in relationship to others. Sociometry in its most basic sense, can be best characterized as a collection of methods to investigate and evaluate networks of existing and preferred relationships.

Specifically, sociometry is the study of interpersonal choices regarding criteria of interest to the investigator. Sociometry is not a study of formal group structure (e.g., official hierarchies), rather it is a phenomenological study of people's interpersonal choices (Treadwell & Kumar, 1985, 1997). Sociometric explorations measure, observe, and intervene in the natural attraction/rejection processes within a given group, e.g., family, social, work, community. These explorations may be didactic or action oriented and include social atoms, role diagrams, interpersonal relations, sociograms, and social networks.

Goals of Sociometry

Facilitate constructive change in individuals and groups.
Increase awareness, empathy, reciprocity and social interactions.
Explore social choice patterns and reduce conflicts.
Clarify roles, interpersonal relations, and values.
Reveal overt and covert group dynamics.
Increase group cohesion and productivity.

Find a Bibliography here

Where is psychodrama

being used? 

Psychodramatists provide services to groups and individuals from children to the elderly and can be found practicing in many diverse settings such as:

• Mental Health Practices and Clinics
• Hospitals
• Addictions programs
• Counseling/Private Practice
• Community Centers
• Educational settings
• Law Firms/Trial Lawyers
• Professional training and development
• Prisons and probation
• Trauma and abuse recovery
• Residential children's facilities
• Social Justice Organizations
• Corporations
• Medical Schools
• Training Organizations

What is Sociodrama?
Sociodrama is an action method in which individuals enact an agreed upon social situation spontaneously. Basing itself on the premise of shared experience, a sociodrama group might seek to define a problem members would like to solve or find a situation in which they would like to gain greater understanding. The participants volunteer or are assigned roles by the director of the sociodrama. After every enactment there is a sharing in which group members discuss the enactment; the solutions or ideas it presented, and sometimes generate new materials for future sociodramatic clarifications. The sharing is a time to begin to process and integrate what has taken place moments before in action. Sociodrama, with its action/reflection components, speaks to both sides of the brain. It is a kinesthetic, intuitive, and cognitive educational technique. (Sternberg & Garcia, 2000).

Further readings in Sociodrama

Kellerman, P. (2007). Sociodrama and collective trauma. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Sternberg, P., & Garcia, A. (2000). Sociodrama: Who's in your shoes? Westport, CT: Praeger.

Torrance, E.P., Murdock, & Fletcher, D. (1988). Sociodrama: Creative problem solving in action. Buffalo: Bearly Limited.

Wiener, R. (1997). Creative training: Sociodrama and team-building. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers

What is Psychodrama?
Conceived and developed by Jacob L. Moreno, MD, psychodrama employs guided dramatic action  to examine problems or issues raised by an individual (psychodrama) or a group (sociodrama).  Using experiential methods, sociometry, role theory, and group dynamics, psychodrama facilitates  insight, personal growth, and integration on cognitive, affective, and behavioral levels. It clarifies issues, increases physical and emotional well being, enhances learning and develops new skills.